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Don Marti: Fun with numbers

Mozilla planet - ti, 06/02/2018 - 09:00

(I work for Mozilla. None of this is secret. None of this is official Mozilla policy. Not speaking for Mozilla here.)

Guess what? According to Emil Protalinski at VentureBeat, the browser wars are back on.

Google is doubling down on the user experience by focusing on ads and performance, an opportunity I’ve argued its competitors have completely missed.

Good point. Jonathan Mendez has some good background on that.

The IAB road blocked the W3C Do Not Track initiative in 2012 that was led by a cross functional group that most importantly included the browser makers. In hindsight this was the only real chance for the industry to solve consumer needs around data privacy and advertising technology. The IAB wanted self-regulation. In the end, DNT died as the IAB hoped.

As third-party tracking made the ad experience crappier and crappier, browser makers tried to play nice. Browser makers tried to work in the open and build consensus.

That didn't work, which shouldn't be a surprise. Imagine if email providers had decided to build consensus with spammers about spam filtering rules. The spammers would have been all like, "It replaces the principle of consumer choice with an arrogant 'Hotmail knows best' system." Any sensible email provider would ignore the spammers but listen to deliverability concerns from senders of legit opt-in newsletters. Spammers depend on sneaking around the user's intent to get their stuff through, so email providers that want to get and keep users should stay on the user's side. Fortunately for legit mail senders and recipients, that's what happened.

On the web, though, not so much.

But now Apple Safari has Intelligent Tracking Prevention. Industry consensus achieved? No way. Safari's developers put users first and, like the man said, if you're not first you're last.

And now Google is doing their own thing. Some positive parts about it, but by focusing on filtering annoying types of ad units they're closer to the Adblock Plus "Acceptable Ads" racket than to a real solution. So it's better to let Ben Williams at Adblock Plus explain that one. I still don't get how it is that so many otherwise capable people come up with "let's filter superficial annoyances and not fundamental issues" and "let's shake down legit publishers for cash" as solutions to the web advertising problem, though. Especially when $16 billion in adfraud is just sitting there. It's almost as if the Lumascape doesn't care about fraud because it's priced in so it comes out of the publisher's share anyway.

So with all the money going to fraud and the intermediaries that facilitate it, local digital news publishers are looking for money in other places and writing off ads. That's good news for the surviving web ad optimists (like me) because any time Management stops caring about something you get a big opportunity to do something transformative.

Small victories

The web advertising problem looks big, but I want to think positive about it.

  • billions of web users

  • visiting hundreds of web sites

  • with tens of third-party trackers per site.

That's trillions of opportunities for tiny victories against adfraud.

Right now most browsers and most fraudbots are hard to tell apart. Both maintain a single "cookie jar" across trusted and untrusted sites, and both are subject to fingerprinting.

For fraudbots, cross-site trackability is a feature. A fraudbot can only produce valuable ad impressions on a fraud site if it is somehow trackable from a legit site.

For browsers, cross-site trackability is a bug, for two reasons.

  • Leaking activity from one context to another violates widely held user norms.

  • Because users enjoy ad-supported content, it is in the interest of users to reduce the fraction of ad budgets that go to fraud and intermediaries.

Browsers don't have the solve the whole web advertising problem to make a meaningful difference. As soon as a trustworthy site's real users look diffferent enough from fraudbots, because fraudbots make themselves more trackable than users running tracking-protected browsers do, then low-reputation and fraud sites claiming to offer the same audience will have a harder and harder time trying to sell impressions to agencies that can see it's not the same people.

Of course, the browser market share numbers will still over-represent any undetected fraudbots and under-represent the "conscious chooser" users who choose to turn on extra tracking protection options. But that's an opportunity for creative ad agencies that can buy underpriced post-creepy ad impressions and stay away from overvalued or worthless bot impressions. I expect that data on who has legit users—made more accurate by including tracking protection measurements—will be proprietary to certain agencies and brands that are going after customer segments with high tracking protection adoption, at least for a while.

Bonus links

Now even YouTube serves ads with CPU-draining cryptocurrency miners http://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2018/01/now-even-youtube-serves-ads-with-cpu-draining-cryptocurrency-miners/ … by @dangoodin001

Remarks delivered at the World Economic Forum

Improving privacy without breaking the web

Greater control with new features in your Ads Settings

PageFair’s long letter to the Article 29 Working Party

‘Never get high on your own supply’ – why social media bosses don’t use social media

Can you detect WebDriver sessions from inside a web page? https://hoosteeno.com/2018/01/23/can-you-detect-webdriver-sessions-from-inside-a-web-page/ … via @wordpressdotcom

Making WebAssembly even faster: Firefox’s new streaming and tiering compiler

Newsonomics: Inside L.A.’s journalistic collapse

The State of Ad Fraud

The more Facebook examines itself, the more fault it finds

In-N-Out managers earn triple the industry average

Five loopholes in the GDPR

Why ads keep redirecting you to scammy sites and what we’re doing about it

https://digiday.com/media/local-digital-news-publishers-ignoring-display-revenue/

Website operators are in the dark about privacy violations by third-party scripts

Mark Zuckerberg's former mentor says 'parasitic' Facebook threatens our health and democracy

Craft Beer Is the Strangest, Happiest Economic Story in America

The 29 Stages Of A Twitterstorm In 2018

How Facebook Helped Ruin Cambodia's Democracy

How Facebook’s Political Unit Enables the Dark Art of Digital Propaganda

Firefox 57 delays requests to tracking domains

Direct ad buys are back in fashion as programmatic declines

‘Data arbitrage is as big a problem as media arbitrage’: Confessions of a media exec

Why publishers don’t name and shame vendors over ad fraud

News UK finds high levels of domain spoofing to the tune of $1 million a month in lost revenue • Digiday

The Finish Line in the Race to the Bottom

Something doesn’t ad up about America’s advertising market

Fraud filters don't work

Ad retargeters scramble to get consumer consent

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

This Week In Rust: This Week in Rust 220

Mozilla planet - ti, 06/02/2018 - 06:00

Hello and welcome to another issue of This Week in Rust! Rust is a systems language pursuing the trifecta: safety, concurrency, and speed. This is a weekly summary of its progress and community. Want something mentioned? Tweet us at @ThisWeekInRust or send us a pull request. Want to get involved? We love contributions.

This Week in Rust is openly developed on GitHub. If you find any errors in this week's issue, please submit a PR.

Updates from Rust Community News & Blog Posts Crate of the Week

This week's crate is datafusion, a query planner/execution framework for Big Data processing. Thanks to andygrove for the suggestion!

Submit your suggestions and votes for next week!

Call for Participation

Always wanted to contribute to open-source projects but didn't know where to start? Every week we highlight some tasks from the Rust community for you to pick and get started!

Some of these tasks may also have mentors available, visit the task page for more information.

If you are a Rust project owner and are looking for contributors, please submit tasks here.

Updates from Rust Core

115 pull requests were merged in the last week

New Contributors
  • Araam Borhanian
  • dpc
  • Jay Strict
  • Jonathan Goodman
  • Matthias Krüger
  • oberien
  • Onur Aslan
  • penpalperson
  • Per Lundberg
Approved RFCs

Changes to Rust follow the Rust RFC (request for comments) process. These are the RFCs that were approved for implementation this week:

Final Comment Period

Every week the team announces the 'final comment period' for RFCs and key PRs which are reaching a decision. Express your opinions now. This week's FCPs are:

New RFCs Upcoming Events

If you are running a Rust event please add it to the calendar to get it mentioned here. Email the Rust Community Team for access.

Rust Jobs

Tweet us at @ThisWeekInRust to get your job offers listed here!

Quote of the Week

Rust has a very high friction coefficient.

We call it grip and it lets us drive fearlessly around hard corners very fast.

u/asmx85 on reddit.

Thanks to JustAPerson for the suggestion!

Submit your quotes for next week!

This Week in Rust is edited by: nasa42 and llogiq.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Air Mozilla: Mozilla Weekly Project Meeting, 05 Feb 2018

Mozilla planet - mo, 05/02/2018 - 20:00

Mozilla Weekly Project Meeting The Monday Project Meeting

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Emma Irwin: (New) Diversity & Inclusion In Open Source — Community Call!

Mozilla planet - mo, 05/02/2018 - 16:13
 

Last year, after three months of qualitative and quantitative research, we published a series of recommendations for D&I in open source. Since this time, we’ve been busy implementing many of those in our work — like these new principles for inclusive volunteer leadership , processes for effectively responding to Community Participation Guideline Reports and investment in Metrics that Matter for D&I in Open Source. To name only a few.

Let’s Work Together!

One thing we heard over, and over again in our research was the belief that to move the needle on diversity in open source — and tech overall, we must move to be more intentional in our collaboration across projects and communities.

To explore this concept, I’ll be sharing the insights from our recent D&I in FOSS survey in the launch of our first D&I in Open Source Community Call! February 28th 9AM PST (your time)

With over 200 projects represented, we learned a lot… not only from responses, but from the challenge of creating an inclusive survey — with privacy, respect and safety of people at center.

Please join this first call to help shape what comes next. What are you working on, what do you need help with? What speakers would you like to see invited?

We’ll be running this call using Vidyo (which has video and phone-in), as well as Telegram (for those with bandwidth issues, or who prefer text-based interactions). You can sign up here for a calendar invite. Agenda outline here. Please reach out directly to Emma (eirwin @ mozilla dot com)

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Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Mike Conley: Things I’ve Learned This Week (May 25 – May 29, 2015)

Thunderbird - mo, 01/06/2015 - 07:49
MozReview will now create individual attachments for child commits

Up until recently, anytime you pushed a patch series to MozReview, a single attachment would be created on the bug associated with the push.

That single attachment would link to the “parent” or “root” review request, which contains the folded diff of all commits.

We noticed a lot of MozReview users were (rightfully) confused about this mapping from Bugzilla to MozReview. It was not at all obvious that Ship It on the parent review request would cause the attachment on Bugzilla to be r+’d. Consequently, reviewers used a number of workarounds, including, but not limited to:

  1. Manually setting the r+ or r- flags in Bugzilla for the MozReview attachments
  2. Marking Ship It on the child review requests, and letting the reviewee take care of setting the reviewer flags in the commit message
  3. Just writing “r+” in a MozReview comment

Anyhow, this model wasn’t great, and caused a lot of confusion.

So it’s changed! Now, when you push to MozReview, there’s one attachment created for every commit in the push. That means that when different reviewers are set for different commits, that’s reflected in the Bugzilla attachments, and when those reviewers mark “Ship It” on a child commit, that’s also reflected in an r+ on the associated Bugzilla attachment!

I think this makes quite a bit more sense. Hopefully you do too!

See gps’s blog post for the nitty gritty details, and some other cool MozReview announcements!

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Rumbling Edge - Thunderbird: 2015-05-26 Calendar builds

Thunderbird - wo, 27/05/2015 - 10:26

Common (excluding Website bugs)-specific: (23)

  • Fixed: 735253 – JavaScript Error: “TypeError: calendar is null” {file: “chrome://calendar/content/calendar-task-editing.js” line: 102}
  • Fixed: 768207 – Make the cache checkbox default-on in the new calendar dialog
  • Fixed: 1049591 – Fix lots of strict warnings
  • Fixed: 1086573 – Lightning and Thunderbird disagree about timezone support in ics files
  • Fixed: 1099592 – Make JS callers of ios.newChannel call ios.newChannel2 in calendar/
  • Fixed: 1149423 – Add Windows timezone names to list of aliases
  • Fixed: 1151011 – Calendar events show up on wrong day when printing
  • Fixed: 1151440 – Choose a color not responsive when creating a New calendar in Lightning 4.0b1
  • Fixed: 1153327 – Run compare-locales with merging for Lightning
  • Fixed: 1156015 – Email scheduling fails for recipients with URN id
  • Fixed: 1158036 – Support sendMailTo for URN type attendees
  • Fixed: 1159447 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | xpcshell-icaljs.ini:calendar/test/unit/test_extract.js
  • Fixed: 1159638 – Getter fails in calender-migration-dialog on first run after installation
  • Fixed: 1159682 – Provide a more appropriate “learn more” page on integrated Lightning firstrun
  • Fixed: 1159698 – Opt-out dialog has a button for “disable”, but actually the addon is removed
  • Fixed: 1160728 – Unbreak Lightning 4.0b4 beta builds
  • Fixed: 1162300 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | xpcshell-libical.ini:calendar/test/unit/test_alarm.js | xpcshell return code: 0
  • Fixed: 1163306 – Re-enable libical tests and disable ical.js in nightly builds when binary compatibility is back
  • Fixed: 1165002 – Lightning broken, tries to load libical backend although “calendar.icaljs” defaults to “true”
  • Fixed: 1165315 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | xpcshell-icaljs.ini:calendar/test/unit/test_bug759324.js | xpcshell return code: 1 | ###!!! ASSERTION: Deprecated, use NewChannelFromURI2 providing loadInfo arguments!
  • Fixed: 1165497 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | xpcshell-icaljs.ini:calendar/test/unit/test_alarmservice.js | xpcshell return code: -11
  • Fixed: 1165726 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | /builds/slave/test/build/tests/mozmill/testBasicFunctionality.js | testBasicFunctionality.js::testSmokeTest
  • Fixed: 1165728 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | xpcshell-icaljs.ini:calendar/test/unit/test_bug494140.js | xpcshell return code: -11

Sunbird will no longer be actively developed by the Calendar team.

Windows builds Official Windows

Linux builds Official Linux (i686), Official Linux (x86_64)

Mac builds Official Mac

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Rumbling Edge - Thunderbird: 2015-05-26 Thunderbird comm-central builds

Thunderbird - wo, 27/05/2015 - 10:25

Thunderbird-specific: (54)

  • Fixed: 401779 – Integrate Lightning Into Thunderbird by Default and Ship Thunderbird with Lightning Enabled
  • Fixed: 717292 – Spell check language setting for subject and body not synchronized, but temporarily appears so when changing language and depending on focus (confusing ux)
  • Fixed: 914225 – Support hotfix add-on in Thunderbird
  • Fixed: 1025547 – newmailaccount/jquery.tmpl.js, line 123: reference to undefined property def[1]
  • Fixed: 1088975 – Answering mail with sendername containing encoded special chars and comma creates two “To”-entries
  • Fixed: 1101237 – Remove distribution directory during install
  • Fixed: 1109178 – Thunderbird OAuth implementation does not work with Evernote
  • Fixed: 1110166 – Port |Bug 1102219 – Rename String.prototype.contains to String.prototype.includes| to comm-central
  • Fixed: 1113097 – Fix misuse of fixIterator
  • Fixed: 1130854 – Package Lightning with Thunderbird
  • Fixed: 1131997 – Adapt for Debugger Server code for changes in bug 1059308
  • Fixed: 1135291 – Update chat log entries added to Gloda since bug 955292 to use relative paths
  • Fixed: 1135588 – New conversations get indexed twice by gloda, leading to duplicate search results
  • Fixed: 1138154 – Plugins default to “always activate” in Thunderbird
  • Fixed: 1142879 – [meta] track Mozilla-central (Core) issues that we want to have fixed in TB38
  • Fixed: 1146698 – Chat Messages added to logs just before shutdown may not be indexed by gloda
  • Fixed: 1148330 – Font indicator doesn’t update when cursor is placed in text where core returns sans-serif (Windows). Serif and monospace don’t work (Linux).
  • Fixed: 1148512 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | mailnews/imap/test/unit/test_dod.js | xpcshell return code: 0||1 | streamMessages – [streamMessages : 94] false == true | application crashed [@ mozalloc_abort(char const * const)]
  • Fixed: 1149059 – splitter in compose window can be resized down to completely obscure composition area
  • Fixed: 1151206 – Using a theme hides minimize, maximize and close button in composer window [Mac]
  • Fixed: 1151475 – Remove use of expression closures in mail/
  • Fixed: 1152299 – [autoconfig] Cosmetic changes for WEB.DE config
  • Fixed: 1152706 – Upgrade to Correspondents column (combined To/From column) too agressive
  • Fixed: 1152796 – chrome://messenger/content/folderDisplay.js, line 697: TypeError: this._savedColumnStates.correspondentCol is undefined
  • Fixed: 1152926 – New mail sound preview doesn’t work for default system sound on Mac OS X
  • Fixed: 1154737 – Permafail: TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | toolkit/components/telemetry/tests/unit/test_TelemetryPing.js | xpcshell return code: 0
  • Fixed: 1154747 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | /builds/slave/test/build/tests/mozmill/session-store/test-session-store.js | test-session-store.js::test_message_pane_height_persistence
  • Fixed: 1156669 – Trash folder duplication while using IMAP with localized TB
  • Fixed: 1157236 – In-content dialogs: Port bug 1043612, bug 1148923 and bug 1141031 to TB
  • Fixed: 1157649 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | dom/push/test/xpcshell/test_clearAll_successful.js (and most other push tests)
  • Fixed: 1158824 – Port bug 138009 to fix packaging errors | Missing file(s): bin/defaults/autoconfig/platform.js
  • Fixed: 1159448 – Thunderbird ignores proxy settings on POP3S protocol
  • Fixed: 1159627 – resource:///modules/dbViewWrapper.js, line 560: SyntaxError: unreachable code after return statement
  • Fixed: 1159630 – components/glautocomp.js, line 155: SyntaxError: unreachable code after return statement
  • Fixed: 1159676 – mailnews/mime/jsmime/test/test_custom_headers.js | run_next_test 0 – TypeError: _gRunningTest is undefined at /builds/slave/test/build/tests/xpcshell/head.js:1435 (and other jsmime tests)
  • Fixed: 1159688 – After switching/changing the window layout, dragging the splitter between threadpane and messagepane can create gray/grey area/space (misplaced notificationbox)
  • Fixed: 1159815 – Take bug 1154791 “Inline spell checker loses red underlines after a backspace is used – take two” in Thunderbird 38
  • Fixed: 1159817 – Take “Bug 1100966 – Inline spell checker loses red underlines after a backspace is used” in Thunderbird 38
  • Fixed: 1159834 – Consider taking “Bug 756984 – Changing location in editor doesn’t preserve the font when returning to end of text/line” in Thunderbird 38
  • Fixed: 1159923 – Take bug 1140105 “Can’t query for a specific font face when the selection is collapsed” in TB 38
  • Fixed: 1160105 – Fix strict mode warnings in protovis-r2.6-modded.js
  • Fixed: 1160106 – “Searching…” spinner at the bottom of gloda search results never goes away
  • Fixed: 1160114 – Strict mode warnings on faceted search
  • Fixed: 1160805 – Missing Windows and Linux nightly builds, build step set props: previous_buildid fails
  • Fixed: 1161162 – “Join Chat” doesn’t focus the newly joined MUC
  • Fixed: 1162396 – Take bug 1140617 “Pasting an image loses the composition style” in TB38
  • Fixed: 1163086 – Take bug 967494 “changing spellcheck language in one composition window affects all open and new compositions” in TB38
  • Fixed: 1163299 – “TypeError: getBrowser(…) is null” in contentAreaClick with Lightning installed and started in calendar view
  • Fixed: 1163343 – Incorrectly formatted error message “sending failed”
  • Fixed: 1164415 – Error in comment for imapEnterServerPasswordPrompt
  • Fixed: 1164658 – TypeError: Cc[‘@mozilla.org/weave/service;1’] is undefined at resource://gre/modules/FxAccountsWebChannel.jsm:227
  • Fixed: 1164707 – missing toolkit_perfmonitoring.xpt in aurora builds
  • Fixed: 1165152 – Take bug 1154894 in TB 38 branch: Disable test_plugin_default_state.js so Thunderbird can ship with plugins disabled by default
  • Fixed: 1165320 – TEST-UNEXPECTED-FAIL | /builds/slave/test/build/tests/mozmill/notification/test-notification.js

MailNews Core-specific: (30)

  • Fixed: 610533 – crash [@ nsMsgDatabase::GetSearchResultsTable(char const*, int, nsIMdbTable**)] with virtual folder
  • Fixed: 745664 – Rename Address book aaa to aaa_test, delete another address book bbb, and renamed address book aaa_test will lose its name and appear deleted after restart (dataloss! involving localized names)
  • Fixed: 777770 – get rid of nsVoidArray from /mailnews
  • Fixed: 786141 – Use nsIFile.exists() instead of stat to check the existence of the file
  • Fixed: 1069790 – Email addresses with parenthesis are not pretty-printed anymore
  • Fixed: 1072611 – Ctrl+P not working from Composition’s Print Preview window
  • Fixed: 1099587 – Make JS callers of ios.newChannel call ios.newChannel2 in mail/ and mailnews/
  • Fixed: 1130248 – |To: “foo@example.com” <foo@example.com>| becomes |”foo@example.comfoo”@example.com| when I compose mail to it
  • Fixed: 1138220 – some headers are not not properly capitalized
  • Fixed: 1141446 – Behaviour of malformed rfc2047 encoded From message header inconsistent
  • Fixed: 1143569 – User-agent error when posting to NNTP due to RFC5536 violation of Tb (user-agent header is folded just after user-agent:, “user-agent:[CRLF][SP]Mozilla…”)
  • Fixed: 1144693 – Disable libnotify usage on Linux by default for new-mail notifications (doesn’t always work after bug 858919)
  • Fixed: 1149320 – fix compile warnings in mailnews/extensions/
  • Fixed: 1150891 – Port package-manifest.in changes from Bug 1115495 – Part 2: PAC generator for browsing and system wide proxy
  • Fixed: 1151782 – Inputting 29th Feb as a birthday in the addressbook contact replaces it with 1st Mar.
  • Fixed: 1152364 – crash in Address Book via nsAbBSDirectory::GetChildNodes nsCOMArrayEnumerator::operator new(unsigned int, nsCOMArray_base const&)
  • Fixed: 1152989 – Account Manager Extensions broken in Thunderbird 37/38
  • Fixed: 1154521 – jsmime fails on long references header and e-mail gets sent and stored in Sent without headers
  • Fixed: 1155491 – Support autoconfig and manual config of gmail IMAP OAuth2 authentication
  • Fixed: 1155952 – Nesting level does not match indentation
  • Fixed: 1156691 – GUI “Edit filters”: Conditions/actions (for specfic accounts) not visible
  • Fixed: 1156777 – nsParseMailbox.cpp:505:55: error: ‘do_QueryObject’ was not declared in this scope
  • Fixed: 1158501 – Port bug 1039866 (metro code removal) and bug 1085557 (addition of socorro symbol upload API)
  • Fixed: 1158751 – Port NO_JS_MANIFEST changes | mozbuild.frontend.reader.SandboxValidationError: calendar/base/backend/icaljs/moz.build
  • Fixed: 1159255 – Build error: MSVC_ENABLE_PGO = True is not permitted to be used in mailnews/intl/moz.build
  • Fixed: 1159626 – chrome://messenger/content/accountUtils.js, line 455: SyntaxError: unreachable code after return statement
  • Fixed: 1160647 – Port |Bug 1159972 – Remove the fallible version of PL_DHashTableInit()| to comm-central
  • Fixed: 1163347 – Don’t require scope in ispdb config for OAuth2
  • Fixed: 1165737 – Fix usage of NS_LITERAL_CSTRING in mailnews, port Bug 1155963 to comm-central
  • Fixed: 1166842 – Re-enable binary extensions for comm-central

Windows builds Official Windows, Official Windows installer

Linux builds Official Linux (i686), Official Linux (x86_64)

Mac builds Official Mac

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Andrew Sutherland: Talk Script: Firefox OS Email Performance Strategies

Thunderbird - to, 30/04/2015 - 22:11

Last week I gave a talk at the Philly Tech Week 2015 Dev Day organized by the delightful people at technical.ly on some of the tricks/strategies we use in the Firefox OS Gaia Email app.  Note that the credit for implementing most of these techniques goes to the owner of the Email app’s front-end, James Burke.  Also, a special shout-out to Vivien for the initial DOM Worker patches for the email app.

I tried to avoid having slides that both I would be reading aloud as the audience read silently, so instead of slides to share, I have the talk script.  Well, I also have the slides here, but there’s not much to them.  The headings below are the content of the slides, except for the one time I inline some code.  Note that the live presentation must have differed slightly, because I’m sure I’m much more witty and clever in person than this script would make it seem…

Cover Slide: Who!

Hi, my name is Andrew Sutherland.  I work at Mozilla on the Firefox OS Email Application.  I’m here to share some strategies we used to make our HTML5 app Seem faster and sometimes actually Be faster.

What’s A Firefox OS (Screenshot Slide)

But first: What is a Firefox OS?  It’s a multiprocess Firefox gecko engine on an android linux kernel where all the apps including the system UI are implemented using HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript.  All the apps use some combination of standard web APIs and APIs that we hope to standardize in some form.

Firefox OS homescreen screenshot Firefox OS clock app screenshot Firefox OS email app screenshot

Here are some screenshots.  We’ve got the default home screen app, the clock app, and of course, the email app.

It’s an entirely client-side offline email application, supporting IMAP4, POP3, and ActiveSync.  The goal, like all Firefox OS apps shipped with the phone, is to give native apps on other platforms a run for their money.

And that begins with starting up fast.

Fast Startup: The Problems

But that’s frequently easier said than done.  Slow-loading websites are still very much a thing.

The good news for the email application is that a slow network isn’t one of its problems.  It’s pre-loaded on the phone.  And even if it wasn’t, because of the security implications of the TCP Web API and the difficulty of explaining this risk to users in a way they won’t just click through, any TCP-using app needs to be a cryptographically signed zip file approved by a marketplace.  So we do load directly from flash.

However, it’s not like flash on cellphones is equivalent to an infinitely fast, zero-latency network connection.  And even if it was, in a naive app you’d still try and load all of your HTML, CSS, and JavaScript at the same time because the HTML file would reference them all.  And that adds up.

It adds up in the form of event loop activity and competition with other threads and processes.  With the exception of Promises which get their own micro-task queue fast-lane, the web execution model is the same as all other UI event loops; events get scheduled and then executed in the same order they are scheduled.  Loading data from an asynchronous API like IndexedDB means that your read result gets in line behind everything else that’s scheduled.  And in the case of the bulk of shipped Firefox OS devices, we only have a single processor core so the thread and process contention do come into play.

So we try not to be a naive.

Seeming Fast at Startup: The HTML Cache

If we’re going to optimize startup, it’s good to start with what the user sees.  Once an account exists for the email app, at startup we display the default account’s inbox folder.

What is the least amount of work that we can do to show that?  Cache a screenshot of the Inbox.  The problem with that, of course, is that a static screenshot is indistinguishable from an unresponsive application.

So we did the next best thing, (which is) we cache the actual HTML we display.  At startup we load a minimal HTML file, our concatenated CSS, and just enough Javascript to figure out if we should use the HTML cache and then actually use it if appropriate.  It’s not always appropriate, like if our application is being triggered to display a compose UI or from a new mail notification that wants to show a specific message or a different folder.  But this is a decision we can make synchronously so it doesn’t slow us down.

Local Storage: Okay in small doses

We implement this by storing the HTML in localStorage.

Important Disclaimer!  LocalStorage is a bad API.  It’s a bad API because it’s synchronous.  You can read any value stored in it at any time, without waiting for a callback.  Which means if the data is not in memory the browser needs to block its event loop or spin a nested event loop until the data has been read from disk.  Browsers avoid this now by trying to preload the Entire contents of local storage for your origin into memory as soon as they know your page is being loaded.  And then they keep that information, ALL of it, in memory until your page is gone.

So if you store a megabyte of data in local storage, that’s a megabyte of data that needs to be loaded in its entirety before you can use any of it, and that hangs around in scarce phone memory.

To really make the point: do not use local storage, at least not directly.  Use a library like localForage that will use IndexedDB when available, and then fails over to WebSQLDatabase and local storage in that order.

Now, having sufficiently warned you of the terrible evils of local storage, I can say with a sorta-clear conscience… there are upsides in this very specific case.

The synchronous nature of the API means that once we get our turn in the event loop we can act immediately.  There’s no waiting around for an IndexedDB read result to gets its turn on the event loop.

This matters because although the concept of loading is simple from a User Experience perspective, there’s no standard to back it up right now.  Firefox OS’s UX desires are very straightforward.  When you tap on an app, we zoom it in.  Until the app is loaded we display the app’s icon in the center of the screen.  Unfortunately the standards are still assuming that the content is right there in the HTML.  This works well for document-based web pages or server-powered web apps where the contents of the page are baked in.  They work less well for client-only web apps where the content lives in a database and has to be dynamically retrieved.

The two events that exist are:

DOMContentLoaded” fires when the document has been fully parsed and all scripts not tagged as “async” have run.  If there were stylesheets referenced prior to the script tags, the script tags will wait for the stylesheet loads.

load” fires when the document has been fully loaded; stylesheets, images, everything.

But none of these have anything to do with the content in the page saying it’s actually done.  This matters because these standards also say nothing about IndexedDB reads or the like.  We tried to create a standards consensus around this, but it’s not there yet.  So Firefox OS just uses the “load” event to decide an app or page has finished loading and it can stop showing your app icon.  This largely avoids the dreaded “flash of unstyled content” problem, but it also means that your webpage or app needs to deal with this period of time by displaying a loading UI or just accepting a potentially awkward transient UI state.

(Trivial HTML slide)

<link rel=”stylesheet” ...> <script ...></script> DOMContentLoaded!

This is the important summary of our index.html.

We reference our stylesheet first.  It includes all of our styles.  We never dynamically load stylesheets because that compels a style recalculation for all nodes and potentially a reflow.  We would have to have an awful lot of style declarations before considering that.

Then we have our single script file.  Because the stylesheet precedes the script, our script will not execute until the stylesheet has been loaded.  Then our script runs and we synchronously insert our HTML from local storage.  Then DOMContentLoaded can fire.  At this point the layout engine has enough information to perform a style recalculation and determine what CSS-referenced image resources need to be loaded for buttons and icons, then those load, and then we’re good to be displayed as the “load” event can fire.

After that, we’re displaying an interactive-ish HTML document.  You can scroll, you can press on buttons and the :active state will apply.  So things seem real.

Being Fast: Lazy Loading and Optimized Layers

But now we need to try and get some logic in place as quickly as possible that will actually cash the checks that real-looking HTML UI is writing.  And the key to that is only loading what you need when you need it, and trying to get it to load as quickly as possible.

There are many module loading and build optimizing tools out there, and most frameworks have a preferred or required way of handling this.  We used the RequireJS family of Asynchronous Module Definition loaders, specifically the alameda loader and the r-dot-js optimizer.

One of the niceties of the loader plugin model is that we are able to express resource dependencies as well as code dependencies.

RequireJS Loader Plugins

var fooModule = require('./foo'); var htmlString = require('text!./foo.html'); var localizedDomNode = require('tmpl!./foo.html');

The standard Common JS loader semantics used by node.js and io.js are the first one you see here.  Load the module, return its exports.

But RequireJS loader plugins also allow us to do things like the second line where the exclamation point indicates that the load should occur using a loader plugin, which is itself a module that conforms to the loader plugin contract.  In this case it’s saying load the file foo.html as raw text and return it as a string.

But, wait, there’s more!  loader plugins can do more than that.  The third example uses a loader that loads the HTML file using the ‘text’ plugin under the hood, creates an HTML document fragment, and pre-localizes it using our localization library.  And this works un-optimized in a browser, no compilation step needed, but it can also be optimized.

So when our optimizer runs, it bundles up the core modules we use, plus, the modules for our “message list” card that displays the inbox.  And the message list card loads its HTML snippets using the template loader plugin.  The r-dot-js optimizer then locates these dependencies and the loader plugins also have optimizer logic that results in the HTML strings being inlined in the resulting optimized file.  So there’s just one single javascript file to load with no extra HTML file dependencies or other loads.

We then also run the optimizer against our other important cards like the “compose” card and the “message reader” card.  We don’t do this for all cards because it can be hard to carve up the module dependency graph for optimization without starting to run into cases of overlap where many optimized files redundantly include files loaded by other optimized files.

Plus, we have another trick up our sleeve:

Seeming Fast: Preloading

Preloading.  Our cards optionally know the other cards they can load.  So once we display a card, we can kick off a preload of the cards that might potentially be displayed.  For example, the message list card can trigger the compose card and the message reader card, so we can trigger a preload of both of those.

But we don’t go overboard with preloading in the frontend because we still haven’t actually loaded the back-end that actually does all the emaily email stuff.  The back-end is also chopped up into optimized layers along account type lines and online/offline needs, but the main optimized JS file still weighs in at something like 17 thousand lines of code with newlines retained.

So once our UI logic is loaded, it’s time to kick-off loading the back-end.  And in order to avoid impacting the responsiveness of the UI both while it loads and when we’re doing steady-state processing, we run it in a DOM Worker.

Being Responsive: Workers and SharedWorkers

DOM Workers are background JS threads that lack access to the page’s DOM, communicating with their owning page via message passing with postMessage.  Normal workers are owned by a single page.  SharedWorkers can be accessed via multiple pages from the same document origin.

By doing this, we stay out of the way of the main thread.  This is getting less important as browser engines support Asynchronous Panning & Zooming or “APZ” with hardware-accelerated composition, tile-based rendering, and all that good stuff.  (Some might even call it magic.)

When Firefox OS started, we didn’t have APZ, so any main-thread logic had the serious potential to result in janky scrolling and the impossibility of rendering at 60 frames per second.  It’s a lot easier to get 60 frames-per-second now, but even asynchronous pan and zoom potentially has to wait on dispatching an event to the main thread to figure out if the user’s tap is going to be consumed by app logic and preventDefault called on it.  APZ does this because it needs to know whether it should start scrolling or not.

And speaking of 60 frames-per-second…

Being Fast: Virtual List Widgets

…the heart of a mail application is the message list.  The expected UX is to be able to fling your way through the entire list of what the email app knows about and see the messages there, just like you would on a native app.

This is admittedly one of the areas where native apps have it easier.  There are usually list widgets that explicitly have a contract that says they request data on an as-needed basis.  They potentially even include data bindings so you can just point them at a data-store.

But HTML doesn’t yet have a concept of instantiate-on-demand for the DOM, although it’s being discussed by Firefox layout engine developers.  For app purposes, the DOM is a scene graph.  An extremely capable scene graph that can handle huge documents, but there are footguns and it’s arguably better to err on the side of fewer DOM nodes.

So what the email app does is we create a scroll-region div and explicitly size it based on the number of messages in the mail folder we’re displaying.  We create and render enough message summary nodes to cover the current screen, 3 screens worth of messages in the direction we’re scrolling, and then we also retain up to 3 screens worth in the direction we scrolled from.  We also pre-fetch 2 more screens worth of messages from the database.  These constants were arrived at experimentally on prototype devices.

We listen to “scroll” events and issue database requests and move DOM nodes around and update them as the user scrolls.  For any potentially jarring or expensive transitions such as coordinate space changes from new messages being added above the current scroll position, we wait for scrolling to stop.

Nodes are absolutely positioned within the scroll area using their ‘top’ style but translation transforms also work.  We remove nodes from the DOM, then update their position and their state before re-appending them.  We do this because the browser APZ logic tries to be clever and figure out how to create an efficient series of layers so that it can pre-paint as much of the DOM as possible in graphic buffers, AKA layers, that can be efficiently composited by the GPU.  Its goal is that when the user is scrolling, or something is being animated, that it can just move the layers around the screen or adjust their opacity or other transforms without having to ask the layout engine to re-render portions of the DOM.

When our message elements are added to the DOM with an already-initialized absolute position, the APZ logic lumps them together as something it can paint in a single layer along with the other elements in the scrolling region.  But if we start moving them around while they’re still in the DOM, the layerization logic decides that they might want to independently move around more in the future and so each message item ends up in its own layer.  This slows things down.  But by removing them and re-adding them it sees them as new with static positions and decides that it can lump them all together in a single layer.  Really, we could just create new DOM nodes, but we produce slightly less garbage this way and in the event there’s a bug, it’s nicer to mess up with 30 DOM nodes displayed incorrectly rather than 3 million.

But as neat as the layerization stuff is to know about on its own, I really mention it to underscore 2 suggestions:

1, Use a library when possible.  Getting on and staying on APZ fast-paths is not trivial, especially across browser engines.  So it’s a very good idea to use a library rather than rolling your own.

2, Use developer tools.  APZ is tricky to reason about and even the developers who write the Async pan & zoom logic can be surprised by what happens in complex real-world situations.  And there ARE developer tools available that help you avoid needing to reason about this.  Firefox OS has easy on-device developer tools that can help diagnose what’s going on or at least help tell you whether you’re making things faster or slower:

– it’s got a frames-per-second overlay; you do need to scroll like mad to get the system to want to render 60 frames-per-second, but it makes it clear what the net result is

– it has paint flashing that overlays random colors every time it paints the DOM into a layer.  If the screen is flashing like a discotheque or has a lot of smeared rainbows, you know something’s wrong because the APZ logic is not able to to just reuse its layers.

– devtools can enable drawing cool colored borders around the layers APZ has created so you can see if layerization is doing something crazy

There’s also fancier and more complicated tools in Firefox and other browsers like Google Chrome to let you see what got painted, what the layer tree looks like, et cetera.

And that’s my spiel.

Links

The source code to Gaia can be found at https://github.com/mozilla-b2g/gaia

The email app in particular can be found at https://github.com/mozilla-b2g/gaia/tree/master/apps/email

(I also asked for questions here.)

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Thunderbird Blog: Thunderbird 38 goes to beta!

Thunderbird - fr, 03/04/2015 - 11:13

The next major release of Thunderbird, version 38, is now in beta and available for testing. You may download Thunderbird 38.0b1 here.

This version of Thunderbird is the first that is mostly managed by volunteer community members rather than by Mozilla staff. We have many new features, including:

  • Message filtering when a message is sent or archived
  • File-per-message local storage available for new accounts (maildir)
  • Contact search over multiple address books
  • Internationalized domain names for RSS feeds
  • Allow expanded columns to the folder pane for folder size and counts

Release notes are available here.

There are still a couple of features missing from this beta that we hope to ship in the final version of Thunderbird 38. Those are:

  • Ship Lightning calendar addon with Thunderbird with an opt-out dialog
  • Use OAUTH authentication with Gmail IMAP accounts

 

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Joshua Cranmer: Breaking news

Thunderbird - wo, 01/04/2015 - 09:00
It was brought to my attention recently by reputable sources that the recent announcement of increased usage in recent years produced an internal firestorm within Mozilla. Key figures raised alarm that some of the tech press had interpreted the blog post as a sign that Thunderbird was not, in fact, dead. As a result, they asked Thunderbird community members to make corrections to emphasize that Mozilla was trying to kill Thunderbird.

The primary fear, it seems, is that knowledge that the largest open-source email client was still receiving regular updates would impel its userbase to agitate for increased funding and maintenance of the client to help forestall potential threats to the open nature of email as well as to innovate in the space of providing usable and private communication channels. Such funding, however, would be an unaffordable luxury and would only distract Mozilla from its central goal of building developer productivity tooling. Persistent rumors that Mozilla would be willing to fund Thunderbird were it renamed Firefox Email were finally addressed with the comment, "such a renaming would violate our current policy that all projects be named Persona."

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Thunderbird Blog: Thunderbird Usage Continues to Grow

Thunderbird - fr, 27/02/2015 - 23:44

We’re happy to report that Thunderbird usage continues to expand.

Mozilla measures program usage by Active Daily Installations (ADI), which is the number of pings that Mozilla servers receive as installations do their daily plugin block-list update. This is not the same as the number of active users, since some users don’t access their program each day, and some installations are behind firewalls. An estimate of active monthly users is typically done by multiplying the ADI by a factor of 3.

To plot changes in Thunderbird usage over time, I’ve picked the peak ADI for each month for the last few years. Here’s the result:

Thunderbird Active Daily Installations, peak value per month.

Germany has long been our #1 country for usage, but in 4th quarter 2014, Japan exceeded US as the #2 country. Here’s the top 10 countries, taken from the ADI count of February 24, 2015:

Rank Country ADI 2015-02-24 1 Germany 1,711,834 2 Japan 1,002,877 3 United States 927,477 4 France 777,478 5 Italy 514,771 6 Russian Federation 494,645 7 Poland 480,496 8 Spain 282,008 9 Brazil 265,820 10 United Kingdom 254,381 All Others 2,543,493 Total 9,255,280

Country Rankings for Thunderbird Usage, February 24, 2015

The Thunderbird team is now working hard preparing our next major release, which will be Thunderbird 38 in May 2015. We’ll be blogging more about that release in the next few weeks, including reporting on the many new features that we have added.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

Joshua Cranmer: Why email is hard, part 8: why email security failed

Thunderbird - ti, 13/01/2015 - 05:38
This post is part 8 of an intermittent series exploring the difficulties of writing an email client. Part 1 describes a brief history of the infrastructure. Part 2 discusses internationalization. Part 3 discusses MIME. Part 4 discusses email addresses. Part 5 discusses the more general problem of email headers. Part 6 discusses how email security works in practice. Part 7 discusses the problem of trust. This part discusses why email security has largely failed.

At the end of the last part in this series, I posed the question, "Which email security protocol is most popular?" The answer to the question is actually neither S/MIME nor PGP, but a third protocol, DKIM. I haven't brought up DKIM until now because DKIM doesn't try to secure email in the same vein as S/MIME or PGP, but I still consider it relevant to discussing email security.

Unquestionably, DKIM is the only security protocol for email that can be considered successful. There are perhaps 4 billion active email addresses [1]. Of these, about 1-2 billion use DKIM. In contrast, S/MIME can count a few million users, and PGP at best a few hundred thousand. No other security protocols have really caught on past these three. Why did DKIM succeed where the others fail?

DKIM's success stems from its relatively narrow focus. It is nothing more than a cryptographic signature of the message body and a smattering of headers, and is itself stuck in the DKIM-Signature header. It is meant to be applied to messages only on outgoing servers and read and processed at the recipient mail server—it completely bypasses clients. That it bypasses clients allows it to solve the problem of key discovery and key management very easily (public keys are stored in DNS, which is already a key part of mail delivery), and its role in spam filtering is strong motivation to get it implemented quickly (it is 7 years old as of this writing). It's also simple: this one paragraph description is basically all you need to know [2].

The failure of S/MIME and PGP to see large deployment is certainly a large topic of discussion on myriads of cryptography enthusiast mailing lists, which often like to partake in propositions of new end-to-end encryption of email paradigms, such as the recent DIME proposal. Quite frankly, all of these solutions suffer broadly from at least the same 5 fundamental weaknesses, and I see it unlikely that a protocol will come about that can fix these weaknesses well enough to become successful.

The first weakness, and one I've harped about many times already, is UI. Most email security UI is abysmal and generally at best usable only by enthusiasts. At least some of this is endemic to security: while it mean seem obvious how to convey what an email signature or an encrypted email signifies, how do you convey the distinctions between sign-and-encrypt, encrypt-and-sign, or an S/MIME triple wrap? The Web of Trust model used by PGP (and many other proposals) is even worse, in that inherently requires users to do other actions out-of-band of email to work properly.

Trust is the second weakness. Consider that, for all intents and purposes, the email address is the unique identifier on the Internet. By extension, that implies that a lot of services are ultimately predicated on the notion that the ability to receive and respond to an email is a sufficient means to identify an individual. However, the entire purpose of secure email, or at least of end-to-end encryption, is subtly based on the fact that other people in fact have access to your mailbox, thus destroying the most natural ways to build trust models on the Internet. The quest for anonymity or privacy also renders untenable many other plausible ways to establish trust (e.g., phone verification or government-issued ID cards).

Key discovery is another weakness, although it's arguably the easiest one to solve. If you try to keep discovery independent of trust, the problem of key discovery is merely picking a protocol to publish and another one to find keys. Some of these already exist: PGP key servers, for example, or using DANE to publish S/MIME or PGP keys.

Key management, on the other hand, is a more troubling weakness. S/MIME, for example, basically works without issue if you have a certificate, but managing to get an S/MIME certificate is a daunting task (necessitated, in part, by its trust model—see how these issues all intertwine?). This is also where it's easy to say that webmail is an unsolvable problem, but on further reflection, I'm not sure I agree with that statement anymore. One solution is just storing the private key with the webmail provider (you're trusting them as an email client, after all), but it's also not impossible to imagine using phones or flash drives as keystores. Other key management factors are more difficult to solve: people who lose their private keys or key rollover create thorny issues. There is also the difficulty of managing user expectations: if I forget my password to most sites (even my email provider), I can usually get it reset somehow, but when a private key is lost, the user is totally and completely out of luck.

Of course, there is one glaring and almost completely insurmountable problem. Encrypted email fundamentally precludes certain features that we have come to take for granted. The lesser known is server-side search and filtration. While there exist some mechanisms to do search on encrypted text, those mechanisms rely on the fact that you can manipulate the text to change the message, destroying the integrity feature of secure email. They also tend to be fairly expensive. It's easy to just say "who needs server-side stuff?", but the contingent of people who do email on smartphones would not be happy to have to pay the transfer rates to download all the messages in their folder just to find one little email, nor the energy costs of doing it on the phone. And those who have really large folders—Fastmail has a design point of 1,000,000 in a single folder—would still prefer to not have to transfer all their mail even on desktops.

The more well-known feature that would disappear is spam filtration. Consider that 90% of all email is spam, and if you think your spam folder is too slim for that to be true, it's because your spam folder only contains messages that your email provider wasn't sure were spam. The loss of server-side spam filtering would dramatically increase the cost of spam (a 10% reduction in efficiency would double the amount of server storage, per my calculations), and client-side spam filtering is quite literally too slow [3] and too costly (remember smartphones? Imagine having your email take 10 times as much energy and bandwidth) to be a tenable option. And privacy or anonymity tends to be an invitation to abuse (cf. Tor and Wikipedia). Proposed solutions to the spam problem are so common that there is a checklist containing most of the objections.

When you consider all of those weaknesses, it is easy to be pessimistic about the possibility of wide deployment of powerful email security solutions. The strongest future—all email is encrypted, including metadata—is probably impossible or at least woefully impractical. That said, if you weaken some of the assumptions (say, don't desire all or most traffic to be encrypted), then solutions seem possible if difficult.

This concludes my discussion of email security, at least until things change for the better. I don't have a topic for the next part in this series picked out (this part actually concludes the set I knew I wanted to discuss when I started), although OAuth and DMARC are two topics that have been bugging me enough recently to consider writing about. They also have the unfortunate side effect of being things likely to see changes in the near future, unlike most of the topics I've discussed so far. But rest assured that I will find more difficulties in the email infrastructure to write about before long!

[1] All of these numbers are crude estimates and are accurate to only an order of magnitude. To justify my choices: I assume 1 email address per Internet user (this overestimates the developing world and underestimates the developed world). The largest webmail providers have given numbers that claim to be 1 billion active accounts between them, and all of them use DKIM. S/MIME is guessed by assuming that any smartcard deployment supports S/MIME, and noting that the US Department of Defense and Estonia's digital ID project are both heavy users of such smartcards. PGP is estimated from the size of the strong set and old numbers on the reachable set from the core Web of Trust.
[2] Ever since last April, it's become impossible to mention DKIM without referring to DMARC, as a result of Yahoo's controversial DMARC policy. A proper discussion of DMARC (and why what Yahoo did was controversial) requires explaining the mail transmission architecture and spam, however, so I'll defer that to a later post. It's also possible that changes in this space could happen within the next year.
[3] According to a former GMail spam employee, if it takes you as long as three minutes to calculate reputation, the spammer wins.

Categorieën: Mozilla-nl planet

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